How does the Recombinant protein vaccine work?

How does the vaccine work? What is the main difference between this one and other vaccines used to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic: Vectored Vaccine and RNA Vaccine?

Since the outbreak of the pandemic, we have heard and read a lot about the different vaccines that have been marketed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

However, if you are not very familiar with the technical and medical language, it is difficult to understand how vaccines work and act in our bodies.

Here you can find an infographic that can help you understand the main vaccines’ differences and the importance and effectiveness of the RBDCOV project.

How does the Recombinant protein vaccine work

Vectored Vaccine

This vaccine contains the adenovirus (a virus that does not cause disease), which carries DNA that contains the information on how to make the Spike protein. The vaccine is taken up  by dendritic cells – a key part of the immune system. The dendritic cell then would produce the Spike protein encoded by the DNA in the adenovirus. The adenovirus acts only as a delivery system, or vector, for the genetic sequence.

RNA Vaccine

This vaccine contains RNA inside lipid nanoparticles (tiny fat-bubbles). RNA is the genetic material that tells our body how to make proteins. The nanoparticles allow the RNA molecule, which carries the information on how to make the Spike protein, to enter the dendritic cells, and this leads to the production of antibodies that can fight the virus.

RBDCOV: Recombinant protein vaccine

It contains two versions of the “Spike”-protein (which the virus needs to enter the cells) from different variants of the virus. The vaccine also contains an adjuvant, that helps to improve the immune response to the vaccine.

There are two responses that happen simultaneously to generate the immune response.

  1. Cellular response:

The “Cellular response” leads to the production of immune cells that can kill vírus-infected cells.

  1. Humoral response:

The “Humoral response” leads to the production of antibodies that can inactivate the virus and prevent the infection of new cells.

In conclusion, what is the innovation of RBDCOV and the Recombinant protein vaccine?

HIPRA’s vaccine works by preparing the body to defend itself against COVID-19.

The goal of this vaccine is to achieve immunological memory.

The vaccine activates B-lymphocytes, which are specific to the production of antibodies and it also activates T-lymphocytes (cytotoxic), which eliminate the infected cells. Both lymphocytes remain as memory cells. Antibodies bind to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and neutralize the infectivity.